Abstract— It has been established that plants which naturally synthesize and accumulate some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, volatile oil, minerals and vitamins have medicinal properties. Then phytochemical and amino acid profile of allium cepa extracts was carried out.
The proximate values of the nutrients in 100g of raw onion were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative method. Amino acid profile of the onion extracts was done by extraction, digestion, distillation, hydrolysis, titration, and evaporation techniques and finally analysed using Technicon Seqential Multisample analyser (DNA model). The standard quantitative method of analysis was used to determine the phytochemicals (toxicants) in the onion extracts while qualitative method was used for the screening.. The result of proximate compositions proved that onions contain Water (86.5%), carbohydrate (11.1%), Protein (1.3%), Fats and oil (0.2%) and Ash (0.5%). The Amino acid profile revealed that Arginine (3.74g/100g) and Histidine (1.21g/100g) were present in the extracts. Others include; Isoleucine (2.22g/100g), Leucine (4.11g/100g), Lysine (3.60g/100g) Methionine (0.86g/100g), Phenylalanine (2.29g/100g), Threonine (1.25g/100g) and valine (2.01g/100g), in 100g of protein. There was a change in the values of amino acid profiles of the aqueous extract when compared with that of solvent extracts. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that; flavonoid, terpernoids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, anthraquinone, phlobatannins, alkaloid and polyphenol were present. The amounts of toxicants in 100g raw onion were: Alkaloid (13.0%), Tannic acid (0.03g), Oxalate (1.15g), Cyanogenic glycosides (2.91mg) and phytic acid (6.05mg). likewise the solvent extracts. But at alpha – level (p ≥ 0.05), there was no significant difference (p = 0.222) between the effects of aqueous and solvent extracts. The research has shown that; onions widely used as food, could serve as natural medicine, flavour enhancer and antimicrobial agent in food and pharmaceutical industries to improve Nigeria’s ailing economy.
2 Study on a Proactive Approach towards Environment Management in Oil and Gas Industry
Abstract— Managing Environmental Risk for onshore Oil and Gas exploration and production is a challenging task because many drilling and other techniques are complex in this industry. In this it is described the implementation and the use of environmental risk management and mitigation strategies for onshore oil and gas projects. To eliminate any risk of contamination the potential impact of the operations and identification of mitigation procedures are followed. It provides a framework for the future environmental management of the area in order to minimize the negative impacts of operations.
The extraction and transportation of both Oil and Natural Gas has a scope of important risks for both workers from these activities by accidents at work and people from neighboring villages (major accident) and for the environment. This paper describes the theoretical considerations regarding the implementation of concept of environmental risk in their activities in Oil and Gas industry and also emphasized on the aspects of managing environmental risk in Oil and Gas industry. Questionnaire survey was conducted for the senior level executives of all installations visited of ONGC, Western – Region and analysis was done in order to identify the environmental risk taking place in Oil and Gas industry and what are the safety measures taken into consideration for managing it.
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Publisher: AD Publications
Address: Sector-3, MP Colony, Bikaner, INDIA
Frequency: 12 issue per year
Agriculture Journal IJOEAR
International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research